This occurs due to the properties of photovoltaic materials, which experience an internal flow of electrons in response to light. Electrons in the crystal structure of these materials absorb the energy of light particles hitting their surface, and are energized to move through the material.

Solar panels are constructed of photovoltaic materials “doped” with positive and negative ions, so that the internal electron movement is channeled through the material and into an electric circuit, via the metal contacts on the panel surface.